This is more for my documentation, but it may help someone else so I'm posting it
I had been developing an Umbraco 7.3.1 site locally with no issues. Then I needed to move the database to Azure (version v12). There are sources of information for doing this sort of thing, but the ones I found were out of date or overly complex. This is a straightforward way I've found that works.
Open Sql Management Studio (I'm using 2014).
Navigate to your Sql database that you want to copy.
Right click on the database and go to
Tasks -> Generate Scripts...
In the Choose Objects step choose
Select specific database objectsand then click
Set Scripting Optionssection choose
Save to new query windowand click the
Set your advanced configuration to mimic these settings this is where I spent most of my time
Connect to your target Azure DB server, choose your target database and execute the query. It should execute successfully.
The advancements of Azure DB and Umbraco have made this process very simple assuming you know which advanced settings to set.